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|Editorial: Annex ZA in standards
During design of a product, the manufacturer is required to observe the essential health and safety requirements of the EC directive(s) for the product concerned. Standards have the function of detailing the provisions of the directive, which are couched in general terms, in accordance with the state of the art.
|Clarity and transparency of safety standards for machinery
The public may occasionally gain the impression that European standards governing the safety of machinery fail to meet the terms of the European Commission’s mandate to the European standards organizations. This perception can be countered by the fact that by April 2004, 475 standards under the Machinery Directive had been listed in the Official Journal of the EU, whereas only approximately 20 standards had been the subject of objections since the first listing in 1992.
|Essential requirements of the Machinery Directive and support of them in harmonized standards
Under Article 95 of the EC Treaty, the Member States have a duty to assure that the free movement of goods is accompanied by a high standard of health and safety. For this purpose, New Approach Directives set out essential safety requirements in general terms. These in turn are supported by technical information contained in harmonized European standards.
|NORMAPME the representative of SMEs in standardization
NORMAPME , the European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, was founded in 1996 at the instigation of UEAPME and a further four industry associations. NORMAPME represents the particular interests of SMEs in the European standardization process, and supports them in the application of European standards. NORMAPME represents 77 associations of SMEs in 31 European countries, whose membership in turn encompasses 20 million businesses and 50% of all employees in Europe.
|Standardization in the area of "physical strength"
Standardization in the area of human physical strength is strongly influenced by the European EN 1005 series of standards. All parts of this series of standards are mandated under the Machinery Directive, and supplement existing Type B ergonomics standards governing the safety of machinery.
|Occupational health and safety and standardization in Italy
No structure comparable to the KAN exists in Italy. In many cases, however, employers’ and employees’ representatives and state and/or regional institutions co-operate effectively to improve standards in the interests of occupational health and safety. The parties chiefly responsible for occupational health and safety in Italy are presented below.
|Workplace lighting what role can standardization play?
The example of workplace lighting shows that European standards can contribute to the detailing of requirements governing arrangements for in-plant workplaces only in a limited number of cases. Such cases include communication (terminology, definitions and symbols) and assurance of the comparability of a defined occupational health and safety standard (test and measurement procedures).
|CENELEC adopts Annex ZZ
CENELEC has agreed with the European Commission to include an informative Annex ZZ in all new harmonized standards under EC New Approach directives (Machinery Directive, EMC Directive, ATEX Directive, etc.).
Following a test phase lasting approximately one year in six European countries, EUROSHNET is now being opened up to OH&S experts throughout Europe (EU and EFTA states). This move widens the arena for discussion of occupational health and safety topics to include the whole of Europe. Interested experts can register with EUROSHNET at www. euroshnet.org (> Network).
|PEROSH - International division of labour
Whereas the European labour market is increasingly subject to harmonized European legislation, research activity on occupational health and safety issues is still largely in the hands of national institutions.